Eleven years after its atrocious civil war, Burundi is still struggling with the consequences of the conflict that lasted for twelve years. The war between the Tutsi and Hutu in Burundi mirrored the situation in Rwanda, where the atrocities committed amounted to genocide on ethnic grounds. The Tutsi population was being exterminated with the specific intent to destroy the group in whole or in part. It is estimated that the Rwandan genocide claimed the lives of around 1 million Tutsi people. The conflict in Burundi did not reach the same level of atrocities but caused the deaths of more than 300,000 people.
This memorandum scrutinizes the international obligations of Burundi and analyzes whether the crimes committed in the country amount to genocide, crimes against humanity, or war crimes. The document also considers the actions taken by the International Criminal Court and the United Nations.